当你第一次开一辆车时，你会怎么做? You adjust the seat so you can reach the pedals 和 see the road easily, as well as feel comfortable. You move the mirrors to make sure you have a clear line of sight behind you 和 to either side. Most cars let you change the headrest position 和 the seat belt height over your shoulder, too. 这些定制使驾驶更安全、更舒适. 当你 居家办公, it's important to make similar adjustments.
如果由于新型冠状病毒，你刚开始在家工作, you can set up your workspace to be safe 和 comfortable with a few ergonomic tips. Doing so reduces your chance of injury 和 increases your comfort, all of which helps you 保持生产 和专注.
你不需要花一大笔钱买一张特殊的椅子. The right office chair will help some, 但你也需要考虑你的脚是如何着地的, 打字或鼠标时手腕是否弯曲, 和 other factors. You can make many of these adjustments using items from around the house or with inexpensive purchases.
Making Do With 什么 You Have
学习如何建立一个符合人体工程学的家庭办公室, I spoke with Alan Hedge, a professor emeritus at Cornell University in the department of design 和 environmental analysis.
他问我在家庭办公室里使用的是什么设备, 我不好意思地承认我的处境可能很糟糕. I had just moved to a new apartment 和 had nothing more than a laptop on a kitchen table with a straight-backed chair.
"If it so happens that when you sit on that chair you can put your h和s flat on the table, 那么键盘很薄的笔记本电脑可能就可以了,”他说. 他补充说，家庭餐桌通常比办公桌低几英寸, making something like a keyboard tray unnecessary for some people working from home.
当然，桌子的高度是否合适是相对的. It depends on how tall you are. Hedge还提供了一些使用廉价物品的技巧, 比如用来支撑腰部的卷毛巾和笔记本电脑支架, 使任何家庭办公室更符合人体工程学友好.
There are four areas to focus your attention when setting up an ergonomic home office, according to Hedge, but before you get started, 同样重要的是要考虑你的工作类型 what kind of equipment you need.
什么 Equipment Do You Need? 什么 Type of Work Do You Do?
什么 equipment do you need to work? Do you have a desktop, laptop, tablet? How many monitors do you use? Do you look at books 和 physical paper often? 你还需要其他外围设备吗，比如麦克风或触控笔?
另外，你用这些设备做什么工作? "The posture of the person sitting down really depends on what they're doing with their h和s,“对冲说. So before you make any changes, consider how you spend the bulk of your work time. Do you type for hours at a time? 你是一个图形设计师谁严重依赖 鼠标 或手写笔? 如果有一项任务需要你长时间完成, 然后自定义您的设置，以安全和舒适的任务. 例如, if you read physical paper, you might need to add a lamp to your desk.
4 Areas of Focus for an Ergonomic 办公室
就像你经常调整汽车以适应你的身体一样, 你应该把你的家庭办公室定制到同样好的程度. 事实上, good ergonomic posture for an office is not all that different from sitting in a car, with your feet flat but legs extended 和 your body not vertical but tilted slightly backward.
To keep your neck, shoulders, 和 back free from injury, your head should be vertical to your neck. 对冲基金称，这种头寸产生的压力最小.
“不幸的是, 如果你在厨房的桌子上用笔记本电脑工作, that screen is going to be way too low. 你会向前弯曲你的脖子，”赫奇说.
他补充说，在短时间内，它可能是无害的. For a long-term setup, though, consider mounting your laptop on a laptop riser 和 using an external keyboard 和鼠标. If you have a monitor, 用书本把它提高到一个舒适的眼睛水平, 一个能让你的头和脖子保持中立的, 堆放位置.
2. H和 和 Wrist Position
Your h和s 和 wrists should be in a neutral posture, similar to your head. 手臂和手向前伸，平放在桌子上. The h和, wrist, 和 forearm are practically flush, which is what you want. 什么 you don't want is a hinge at the wrist.
"Make sure any input devices you're using, you can use with your h和s in what we call a neutral posture for as much of the time as possible,“对冲说. So adjust your workspace accordingly. 如果可能的话，你可能要改变桌子或椅子的高度, 或者将你的键盘和鼠标移近或移远.
3. Seated Posture 和 Back 支持
“有个流言说你应该坐在90度的地方,“对冲说, 意思是躯干与地面垂直. "Most of us [ergonomics experts] have spent a lifetime trying to tell people that's not how you should sit."
Better: Find a posture that allows you to see the screen while sitting back in a way that provides lower back support. You might find it's similar to sitting in the driver's seat of a car, slightly leaning back.
如果你没有一个漂亮的办公椅, try putting a cushion, 枕头, or towel behind your lower back. That will do some good. You can buy inexpensive chair cushions that are designed for lumbar support. 赫奇还建议研究骨科座椅(例如，请参阅 BackJoy's line of posture seats). These saddle-like products work with any chair, 它们会使你的骨盆倾斜到一个更符合人体工程学的位置. Shorter people might also find that having a footrest helps them achieve the right posture.
另外, Hedge cautions to make sure the seat is not hitting the back of your knees because it can reduce blood flow 和 cause your feet 和 ankles to swell.
The last area of focus has to do with behavior. Take frequent but short breaks.
"From the research we've done, the ideal routine is about every 20 minutes, take a short break where you st和 up, 伸展一下身体，大概一两分钟. 更棒的是，可以边散步边泡杯茶或咖啡。. 运动可以改善血液循环、舒适和性能. It also decreases the risk of injuries.
Hedge also recommended other changes you can make that limit the length of time your body will be doing one repetitive action. 例如, if your job involves excessive typing, 考虑使用语音到文本的应用程序或听写软件. That way, you can cut down on the total amount of time your fingers are on the keyboard.
I asked Hedge about 立式办公桌 还有坐立两用的桌子(可以升降), 和 he said while it doesn't hurt to have one, you have to use it properly.
“站着比坐着给身体带来更多的压力. The reason we have chairs is because if you had to st和 all day to do your work, 这对你的身体来说比整天坐着工作要困难得多,”他说. "Sitting is not bad for you. 什么 is bad for you is sitting all day long, 就像整天站着不动对你有害一样."
If you're going to use a sit-st和 desk, the optimal cycle is 20 minutes of seated work followed by 8 minutes of st和ing, followed by 2 minutes of moving around. St和ing longer than about 8 minutes, said Hedge, leads people to start leaning. 另外, every time you change the desk height, 您必须确保调整了所有其他工作站组件, like the keyboard 和 the monitor, 把你的姿势重新放到一个中立的位置.
Hedge suggested that creating an ergonomic office was like fitting together the pieces of a puzzle. He said people commonly make the mistake of buying an expensive chair 和 calling it a day.
"If you don't do all four [of the recommended customizations], you'll never get the best results. 如果你要做的是调整电脑屏幕到一个合适的高度, but you never adjust how you're sitting or you never adjust your keyboard or your 鼠标, you'll never get the optimal results,”他说. "The combined effect of everything to put you into a neutral posture 和 to keep you moving throughout the day is much greater than the effect of any one individual change."
Here's a summary of some of the equipment 和 tools mentioned that might help you customize your home office to be more ergonomic.
- External keyboard
- Cushions 和 枕头s
- Voice dictation software
- White noise machine
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