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Multi-Factor Authentication: Who Has It and How to Set It Up

Don't let scammers get their hands on your sensitive information. 下面是如何使用多因素认证(MFA)来保护你的在线账户。, 又名双因素认证(2FA).

2022年1月19日
(插图:René拉莫斯)

The 2014 Heartbleed 由于一小段代码,漏洞将数百万的互联网登录暴露给了骗子, 自那以后,betway体育的安全噩梦只会越来越严重.

一般的互联网用户会怎么做呢? 你应该有强密码. They’re a 很可笑的 方法的身份验证,可以很容易地被各种方法获取. (But you can 停止不断更改密码 除非他们违反了协议.)

What you really need is a second way to verify yourself. 这就是为什么许多互联网服务, a number of which have felt the pinch of being hacked or breached, offer 多因素身份验证 (or MFA). 直到最近,betway体育通常都叫它 双因素身份验证 (2FA),但因素越多越好. You'll find all the terms used interchangeably with "multi-step," "two-step,而“验证”则取决于市场.

作为PCMag的首席安全分析师 Neil J. Rubenking put it, "there are three generally recognized factors for authentication: something you know (such as a password), something you have (such as a hardware token or cell phone), 你是什么(比如你的指纹). Two-factor means the system is using two of these options." Multi-factor means you might have even more than two.

Biometric scanners for fingerprints and retinas or faces are on the upswing thanks to innovations such as Apple's Face ID and Windows Hello. 但大多数情况下, 额外的身份验证只是一个数字字符串, 几个号码发到你手机上了, 作为一个只能使用一次的代码.

You can get that code via SMS text message (which is 这不是个好主意) or a specialized smartphone app called an "authenticator.一旦链接到你的账户, the app displays a constantly rotating set of codes to utilize whenever needed—it doesn't even require an internet connection. 有几个应用程序, including some from big names like Microsoft and Google, +为什么Twilio Authy, Duo Mobile, 和LastPass身份. 本质上,它们都做同样的事情,有些带有密码管理和其他功能. 以下是betway体育的纲要 最好的认证程序.

The majority of popular password managers (such as LastPass) all offer MFA authentication by default as well. The codes provided by 身份验证应用程序s sync across your accounts, 所以你可以扫描手机上的二维码,在浏览器上获得你的六位数访问码, if supported.

请注意,设置MFA实际上会中断一些旧服务的访问. In such cases, you must rely on app passwords—a password you generate on the main website to use with a specific app. 你会在Facebook上看到应用程序密码的选项, Twitter, Microsoft, Yahoo, Evernote, and others—all of which either are used as third-party logins or have older functions you can access from within other services. The need for app passwords is, thankfully, dwindling.

Remember this as you panic over how hard this all sounds: 安全不是件容易的事. 坏人指望你能放松警惕. 实现MFA将意味着每次在新设备上登录需要更长的时间, but it's worth it in the long run to avoid serious theft, 是你的身份, data, or money.

The following is not an exhaustive list of services with MFA ability, 但betway体育将介绍每个人倾向于使用的主要服务,并引导您完成设置. Activate MFA on all of these and you'll be more secure than ever.


亚马逊两步验证

亚马逊两步验证

Amazon 2FA support is pretty important, as Amazon has its fingers in many pies, like Comixology, Audible.以及使用亚马逊支付的必威betwayapp——所有这些都与你的信用卡绑定.

Open up Amazon.在桌面上单击。Com Accounts & Lists 下拉菜单,转到 Your Account. Click on Login & Security. 在下一页上,单击旁边的Edit 两步验证(2SV)设置. The preferred method is an 验证应用程序 (scan the QR code); phone number(s) are the backup method.

A nice option with Amazon is the ability to tell the service to skip the codes on trusted devices (or on multiple trusted web browsers on the same device). If that option doesn't work later, come back to the 两步验证 (2SV) page and click 要求在所有设备上使用OTP. OTP means one-time password; that's what Amazon insists on calling the authentication code.


betway体育双因素身份验证

Your Apple ID is a big part of your life if you're an iOS or Mac user. 重要的不仅仅是访问, but also storage via iCloud; purchases like movies, books, and apps; and subscriptions to services like Apple Music and Apple TV+.

如果需要激活双因素认证,请执行 管理你的Apple ID页面 and sign in. Look for 账户安全 > 双因素身份验证 然后点击“开始”..."

然后,您将了解如何使用iOS或macOS为betway体育设置2FA的步骤. 在iOS平台上 Settings > [your name at the top] > Password & Security > Turn on 双因素身份验证. On macOS go to > System Preferences > iCloud,登录,点击 Account Details > Security > Turn on 双因素身份验证. (Here are 在iOS 15中设置它的细节 so you can literally use your iOS device as an 身份验证应用程序.)

You'll have to answer two of your three pre-set security questions and re-confirm your credit card on the account to get into the setup. Then you have to enter a valid phone number to get a text or phone call (even if it's the number already on the phone you're using for setup). 如果是同一部手机, the six-digit code will be entered automatically when it arrives, 或者直接输入.

After that, 用betway体育ID登录任何东西应该会在设备上生成用于设置的代码. betway体育还支持 app-specific密码.

请注意,一旦betway体育的双因素认证激活,你就不能关闭它. "Certain features in the latest versions of iOS and macOS require this extra level of security, 哪些是用来保护您的信息的," Apple says.


Dropbox两步验证

Dropbox on the desktop website 有一个TAB叫做 Security. It's where you go to check how many current sessions are logged in and devices are using the account, 修改密码, and, of course, 打开两步验证. 把它切换到打开, 输入一个密码, and you'll be asked if you want to get security codes via SMS text message or via a mobile 身份验证应用程序.

如果选择文本方式,请输入电话号码,并立即收到密码. 你还可以输入一个备份号码, plus receive a 16-digit number you should save somewhere safe; it will allow you to deactivate two-step verification if needed. 如果你选择了验证器应用程序(你应该选择),你会在屏幕上看到一个QR码来扫描. 其他选项包括使用硬件安全密钥(如果您有的话). Dropbox提供 优秀的MFA指令.


Facebook的双因素身份验证

Facebook的双因素身份验证

Facebook is the last place you want to lose control of an account; its version of 双因素身份验证 will help prevent that. 在桌面上,你可以通过进入 Settings > 安全登录.

Under 双因素身份验证, click Edit on the right. 在下一个屏幕中, 选择您希望接收第二种身份验证形式的方式:文本消息, 身份验证应用程序, 或者物理安全密钥. 你可以把它插在电脑上或者放在电脑旁边,这样就可以获取更多的信息 The Best Security Keys for Multi-Factor Authentication.

如果您选择一个验证器应用程序(它是 the best option 当涉及到Facebook), Facebook将在桌面屏幕上产生一个QR码. 在你的智能手机上打开你的验证程序, select Add, and hold your smartphone up to the computer screen to capture the code. 下次你登录Facebook时,它会要求你输入6位数的密码, 打开验证器应用程序来检索它.

The above options require you to have access to your phone, of course. 但是当你激活MFA时,你可以得到一个列表 10恢复代码 to download and use at any time, even if you don't have your phone. 让他们进入 “双因素认证设置”区域框 把他们放在安全的地方.


谷歌两步认证方式

谷歌两步认证方式

使用您的信用卡(通过谷歌Pay在谷歌上购物), 重要消息和文档, 您的智能家居设备, and even your videos on YouTube—essentially your whole life—a Google account has to be well-protected. Thankfully, the company has been working on MFA systems since 2010.

谷歌的第一个最简单的选项 两步认证方式 is using Google Prompt. 只需将您的智能手机添加到您的帐户, 确保手机上有谷歌搜索应用, and at login, 拿起电话,轻敲一下,确认你就是登录的人. Easy.

If that doesn't work, you'll need to enter an extra code. 这些代码会通过短信、语音通话或认证应用程序发送到你的手机. 谷歌身份验证-或任何验证器应用程序-可以为你生成验证码,不需要互联网. 在你的个人账户上,选择 注册你所信任的电脑 so you don't have to enter a code during every sign-in.

一旦您设置了谷歌2-Step验证,再次访问您的 谷歌帐号安全设置. Select the optional phone numbers that can receive codes, 切换到使用验证器应用程序, 并生成特定于应用程序的密码.


Instagram双重认证

自2016年以来,facebook旗下的Instagram提供了双重认证. To turn it on, 在移动应用程序中,进入你的个人资料(右下角的图标), 然后点击右上角的汉堡菜单. Tap Settings > Security > 双因素身份验证.

There you can choose how you'd like to get your authentication code. Options include an 验证应用程序 (recommended) using WhatsApp, 或通过短信(包括国家代码, 因为Instagram无处不在). 如果你使用认证应用, Instagram will walk you through the steps to set it up, since you can't exactly scan a QR code from your mobile phone while using the app on your mobile phone.)

The app also offers a list of five backup codes for use when you can't get codes via the 验证应用程序 or SMS. Tell the app to send you notification of log-in requests to your account so you get an extra chance to approve them.


Intuit tutbotax, Turbo和Mint.com

Worried about SIRF? 这是盗用身份退款诈骗 the IRS fights so your tax refunds go to you, not scammers and crooks.

如果你使用电子存档软件或服务,请打开MFA. Intuit tutbotax 是PCMag编辑的选择吗 税务申报软件. 通过桌面浏览器登录后,点击 Intuit Account > Sign in & Security 然后点击旁边的链接 两步验证. 如果你已经输入了电话号码, it should appear here so you can verify by text or voice call. 一旦打开,就可以选择 打开验证器应用程序 appears. 电话号码保留在系统中以备备用.

This login also works for Intuit's online personal finance tracker Mint.


LinkedIn两步验证

商务社交网络LinkedIn使它很容易设置MFA验证, 要么通过短信,要么通过认证应用. Go to the Me menu > Settings & Privacy > Sign in & Security > 两步验证.

You'll immediately get a six-digit code to enter to verify you're you. 你只有一个电话号码(没有备份). You can also go here to get recovery codes that let you access the account even if you don't have access to your phone.


必威betwayapp两步验证

必威betwayapp两步验证

Microsoft has tied together most of its services under one umbrella. Outlook.com, OneDrive, Xbox Live, Skype, an Office 365 subscription, the Windows operating system itself, and much more can all use the same account. 自然,它应该得到一些额外的保护.

事实上,必威betwayapp在2021年表示 甚至不需要密码 on accounts—as long as you use one of its ways to log-in MFA-style. That means using either the Microsoft Authenticator app on iOS or Android, Windows Hello 生物识别登录. 但你可以坚持使用密码,并获得安全密钥或验证码.

登录你的必威betwayapp账户 account.microsoft.com/profile. In the top navigation, click Security; on the next page, click Advanced security options. You'll see a link called Add a new way to sign in or verify, 你可以在这里输入很多信息, such as email addresses and phone numbers that can be used to get a code—plus you can set up Enter a code from an 身份验证应用程序. 在那下面,你会看到选项 无密码帐户 和两步验证.

You don't need to use Microsoft Authenticator if you're only setting up MFA access with a password. 它也适用于其他标准的认证程序, 比如谷歌认证器和authi -但是要使用它们, 在设置过程中,您必须选择“其他”. Or you can get the codes sent via text message or email.

但如果你想用新的 无密码帐户 option, Microsoft Authenticator will be required on your smartphone. 但你甚至可能不需要输入代码——如果你试图在某个地方登录,应用程序就会弹出, 当你登录手机后,应用程序就打开了, you usually click a couple of boxes to authentication, easy-peasy. (Some might say too easy—since all anyone needs to access your Microsoft account now is to steal your phone since there's no password.)

必威betwayapp提供了一个恢复代码,你可以写下并保持安全, a 25-digit whopper (like the kind it uses on everything from software registrations to Xbox giveaways).


贝宝两步认证方式

作为一项专门用于支付的服务,贝宝最好是尽可能安全.

When you login, click the gear icon to get a menu and access Settings > Security. Next to 两步认证方式, click Set Up. You can to receive a text message or code via an 身份验证应用程序; for the latter you do the usual steps of scanning a QR code with the app. 选择一种方法作为主要方法.

You have the option to add a backup MFA method to your account, such as a different number or even another whole 身份验证应用程序, 当你找不到电话的时候. Go back into Settings > Security and click Update if you ever want to add methods, or turn MFA off completely. You can also skip the MFA on select devices as you log into them, so you won't be asked for a code on that device/browser again.

如果您有一个商业帐户,那么步骤略有不同, 但最终你必须找到你的方法,以设置得到2步验证.


松弛因子认证

Got an office Slack? 您是否可以使用双因素来保护它取决于您工作空间的帐户设置. 如果你使用G Suite账户登录Slack,你就可以通过谷歌处理双因素. 如果您正在访问多个Slack工作区, you need to set up MFA on each workspace individually—some may use it, some may not.

否则,去 Account > Settings > 双因素身份验证 to find the 设置双因素身份验证 button. (如果你看不到它,它就不是你的选择.)输入密码后, you get two choices: receive the code via SMS text messages, 或者使用认证应用程序. 即使你选择了这个应用程序,你也可以选择输入一个备用的手机号码.

所有者/管理员可以进入 工作空间设置 & Permissions > Authentication to require workspace-wide 双因素身份验证 if desired.


Twitter的双因素身份验证

Twitter的双因素身份验证

激活Twitter上的登录验证.在桌面上单击。Com More menu 在左边选择 Settings & Privacy > Security and account access > Security > 双因素身份验证. 选择通过电话(短信)获取代码, 验证应用程序, or with a physical security key (or any combination of the three). In the mobile Twitter app, the steps are much the same but you start by clicking on your profile pic.

Twitter将生成 backup codes 当你丢了设备的时候 临时密码 to use one time when logging in at services/places/times when you can't get a regular MFA code.

You may also use the Twitter app itself as an 验证应用程序. On the mobile app (this doesn't work on the desktop) go to Settings > Security and account access > Security > Two-factor authentication > 登录代码生成器 查看每30秒更新一次的六位数字,就像验证程序一样. 当你用Twitter账号登录第三方必威betwayapp时,这可以帮助你.


雅虎帐户密钥或2步验证

雅虎帐户密钥或2步验证

要在雅虎设置验证,请访问您的 Personal info (look for your name, or the link to Sign In, in the upper-right corner of any Yahoo page, and select Add or Manage Accounts > Account Info). Click 账户安全 你会看到 两步验证 toggle. It will immediately confirm the phone number on your account, 或者要求一个新的,并发送验证码. It also warns you that certain apps won't work with second sign-in verification—those will require app passwords.

There is no option to use a third-party 身份验证应用程序. However, the 雅虎账户关键 是下一个最好的选择吗. 它希望你的手机上至少有一个雅虎开发的应用程序,比如雅虎邮件(Yahoo Mail). 当你试图登录时, 你必须启动应用程序, then 雅虎账户关键 will send a notification to it directly. 你只需按下一个按钮确认是你,就这样了——没有密码或密码可以输入.

If you don't have a Yahoo app on your mobile device, Yahoo can 发短信或电子邮件给你一个MFA代码. 当/如果你激活雅虎帐户密钥, 雅虎取消了两步验证, and vice versa, as Account Key must be turned off to allow two-step verification.

在你设置了上面的任何一个后,帐户安全列表显示另一个选项: 生成应用程序的密码. 当你准备在没有直接支持的设备上访问雅虎服务时, 您将在这里创建允许访问的新惟一密码.


2足总目录

所有的必威betwayapp与MFA

The list above covers the biggest tech companies and some that have important access to your data. But if you need a comprehensive listing of just about every site or service that offers 多因素身份验证, 完成每一个说明, 有一个选项: 2足总目录 has a great listing of sites that support it and what method they use to send a code (they call an 身份验证应用程序 a "software token" on the site.)他们还提供链接到每个必威betwayapp/服务的文档,以了解如何设置MFA.

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关于埃里克·格里菲思

Eric Griffith

埃里克·格里菲斯一直在写有关计算机的文章, the internet, 专业从事技术工作30年, 超过一半的时间是在PCMag上. He was previously on the founding staff of publications like Windows来源,FamilyPC, and 网络杂志的访问, all of which are now defunct, and it's not his fault. 他花了六年时间专门写关于Wi-Fi的文章,但别让他帮你修路由器. At PCMag he runs several special projects including the Readers' Choice and Business Choice surveys, and yearly coverage of the Fastest ISPs and Best Gaming ISPs, Plus定期撰写所有技术主题的专题文章. 他是两部小说的作者 BETA TEST ("an unusually lighthearted apocalyptic tale" according to 出版商周刊) and 幽灵般的墓湾,你仍然可以买到电子书. 他在纽约伊萨卡的家中工作,早在流行病流行之前就开始了这项研究.

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